The red territories above indicate the distribution of Native American Tribes with Algonquin Languages.
Here follows a selection of The Algonquin Legends of New England, by Charles G. Leland, . The purposes of posting these myths, using these interpretations, and mythic variations, is to assert that the various Algonquin Speaking tribes were in fact descendants of the Norse colony of Vinland, and heirs of norse heathenism in the new world. I felt compelled to share this new-world mythology to combat the folkish belief that only caucasians, or even scandinavians, have any claim to norse religion.
Though this antiquated text on Native American Religious Legends holds it’s own biases, I have further selected only those portions which emphasize the points which are most indicative of norse Influence. However the original page can be read here, http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/ne/al/al07.htm
"How Glooskap made the Elves and Fairies, and then Man of an Ash Tree, and last of all, Beasts, and of his Coming at the Last Day.
Glooskap came first of all into this country, into Nova Scotia, Maine, Canada, into the land of the Wabanaki, next to sunrise. There were no Indians here then (only wild Indians very far to the west).
First born were the Mikumwess, the Oonahgemessuk, the small Elves, little men, dwellers in rocks.
And in this way he made Man: He took his bow and arrows and shot at trees, the basket-trees, the Ash. Then Indians came out of the bark of the Ash-trees. …..
…So he questioned all the beasts, changing their size or allotting their lives according to their answers.
He took the Loon (a bird) for his dog; but the Loon absented himself so much that he chose for this service two wolves,—one black and one white. 4 But the Loons are always his tale-bearers.
Many years ago a man very far to the North wished to cross a bay, a great distance, from one point to another. As he was stepping into his canoe he saw a man with two dogs,—one black and one white,—who asked to be set across. The Indian said, “You may go, but what will become of your dogs?” Then the stranger replied, “Let them go round by land.” “Nay,” replied the Indian, “that is much too far.” But the stranger saying nothing, he put him across. And as they reached the landing place there stood the dogs. But when he turned his head to address the man, he was gone. So he said to himself, “I have seen Glooskap.”
Yet again,—but this was not so many years ago, far in the North there were at a certain place many Indians assembled. And there was a frightful commotion, caused by the ground heaving and rumbling; the rocks shook and fell, they were greatly alarmed, and lo! Glooskap stood before them, and said, “I go away now, but I shall return again; when you feel the ground tremble, then know it is I.” So they will know when the last great war is to be, for then Glooskap will make the ground shake with an awful noise. ….
..This very interesting tradition was taken down by Mrs. W. Wallace Brown from a very old Passamaquoddy Indian woman named Molly Sepsis, who could not speak a word of English, with the aid of another younger woman named Sarah.
It will be observed that it is said in the beginning that Glooskap produced the first human beings from the ash-tree. Ash and Elm in the Edda were the Adam and Eve of the human race. There were no intelligent men on earth—
"Until there came three
mighty and benevolent
Aesir to the world
from their assembly
Ash and Embla (Ash and Elm),
void of destiny.
"Spirit they possessed not,
sense they had not,
blood nor motive powers,
nor goodly color.
Spirit gave Odin,
sense gave Hoenir,
blood gave Lodur
and good color. ” 1
The wolf, as a beast for the deity to ride, is strongly Eddaic.
"Magic songs they sung,
rode on Wolves,
the god (Odin) and gods. 1
We have here within a few lines, accordingly, the ash as the parent of mankind, and wolves as the beasts of transport for the supreme deity, both in the Indian legend and in the Edda.
As Glooskap is directly declared in one tradition to keep by him as an attendant a being who is the course of the sun and of the seasons, it may be assumed that the black and white wolf represent day and night.
Again, great stress is laid in the Glooskap legend upon the fact that the last great day of battle with Malsum. the Wolf, and the frost-giants, stone-giants, and other powers of evil, shall be announced by an earthquake.
Ash yet standing,
groans that aged tree …
and the Wolf runs …
The monster’s kin goes
all with the Wolf… .
Tile stony hills are dashed together,
The giantesses totter.
Then arises Hlin’s second grief
When Odin goes
with the wolf to fight.”
Word for word, ash-tree, giantesses, the supreme god fighting with a wolf, and falling hills, are given in the Indian myth. This is not the Christian Day of Judgment, but the Norse.
In this myth Glooskap has two wolves, one black and the other white. This is an indication of day and night, since he is distinctly stated to have as an attendant Kulpejotei, who typifies the course of the seasons. In the Eddas (Ragnarok) we are told that one wolf now follows the, sun, another the moon; one Fenris, the other Moongarm:—
"The moon’s devourer
In a troll’s disguise.”